The concept of a state in Islam is that of a common wealth of all the Muslims living as one community under the guidance and doctrine of a Supreme executive head. Islamic State is a state in which every Muslim has a right to serve his life according to the principles of The Holy Quran and Sunnah.
Meaning of State
(i) Literal Meaning
Literally it means an organized political community under one government; a common wealth; a nation.
(ii) Legal Meaning
“The organs of Government of a national community.”
Concept of Islamic State
The concept of Islamic state is that kind of state in which every Muslim has a right to spend his life according to the principles of Islamic injunctions, where Islamic Shariah is enforced.
Object of an Islamic State
The object of an Islamic state is to make the system of Prayer, Zakat, and to follow whatever Allah and His Messenger Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) regarded as virtuous and to forbid whatever they forbids.
Features of Government in Islamic state
Following are the features of government in Islamic state
(i) Sovereignty if Allah
Sovereignty of Allah is fundamental principle of Islamic state. Sovereignty does and can only belongs to Allah and no one can claim to be sovereign. He is Omni Potent, Omni Scient, Omni Competent and Omni Present.
The title given to Khalifa was known as Khilafat-ul-RasoolAllah i.e, VICEGERENT OF RASOOL ALLAH. The first pious Caliph is Hazrat Abu Bakar Saddique (R.A).
It is also known as Consultative Assembly. The principles of Shura are compulsory and are required by Shariah. An Islamic state must consult its subjects in all important affairs.
(iv) Independence of Judiciary
Under the Islamic system, judiciary is independent of executive or legislature. Everyone is equal before law either he is an ordinary citizen or a caliph.
(v) Welfare of the state
Islamic state is a model of welfare state, providing basic facilities of life and shelter of all its citizens. Hazrat Umar (R.A) says, “Even if a dog dies at the Bank of Dajl, I will be responsible to Allah for him.”
(vi) Protection of non Muslim
The right of non-Muslims are well protected by the Islamic state. Jizya is a tax imposed on non Muslims for protection of their lives and property from foreign attacks. Holy Quran Says, Let there be no compulsion in religion”.
(vii) Relation with other states
Islam is the religion of Joy, Peace and security. It believes in ideals relations with other states. The Prophet (SAW) and four Caliphs made a positive role in this way. They used to give full protocol to foreign missions.
(viii) Obedience of ruler
The Quranic injunctions calls upon the Muslims to obey the supreme commander among them.
(ix) Role of opposition
People at large play the role of opposition in State
A poor woman had made an enquiry to Caliph Umar (R.A) about cloth sheets. Hence, the people check and control the functions of Government run by Caliph.
(x) Two Nation theory
Islamic state is founded on the basis of believers and non believers. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan is the pioneer of two nation theory. All Muslims of the world are one nation and cannot be distinguished on the basis of color, race, creed, language or place of the birth.
(xi) Duties of the state
Following are the duties of the state
v Preservation of Din (Religion)
v Preservation of life
v Preservation of Progeny
v Preservation of Intellect
v Preservation of Wealth
Hence for final analysis we can say that, Islam takes a complete perspective of life and covers all its viewpoints and stages. The essential point of Islamic state is that man should devote his entire life to the causes of Allah. The concept of State in Islam is all embracing. It contains all elements and pillars and structures on which a state can be built. The spirit of state will determine future course of Islamic state.
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