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    Monday, 26 December 2016

    Injury and its Kinds under Medical jurisprudence

    1. Introduction
    Injury and wound are usually intermixed with each other. Reality is that these two terms are different from each other. Main difference between them is that all wounds can be injuries while all injuries cannot be wounds. There are various kinds of injury and different punishment has been provided for each kinds of injury.

    2. Meaning under section 44 of Pakistan Penal Code
    The word injury denotes any harm whatever illegally caused to person in body, mind, reputation or property.

    i. Meaning under Medical Jurisprudence
    An injury means a solution or disruption of anatomical continuity of any tissues of body.

    3. Different Kinds of Injury

    Under Pakistan Penal code, different kinds of injury have been mentioned in form of itlaf-i-udw, itlaf-i-salahiyyat-udw, shajjah, jurh and all kinds of other hurt. As far as medical jurisprudence is concerned, followings are kinds of injury.

    i. Thermal Injury
    For explanation of thermal injury, following points are important

    a. Meaning
    Tissue injury, which results from application of heat in any form to external or internal surface of heat, is termed as thermal injury.

    b. Forms
    Followings are different forms of thermal injury:

    b-i. Injury due to explosion
    Such injury can be cussed by flame, missiles, blast or hot gases.

    b-ii. Radiation Burn
    Radiation burn can be caused by those electric voltages currents which are produced during thunderstorm, and which reach earth and cause injuries to people.

    b-iii. Chemical Burn
    When injury is caused by some chemical substance like acid, such injury is called chemical burn.

    b-iv. Electric Burn
    Electric burn can be due to lightening, sparks, flash or electric contract.

    b-v. Scald
    If moist heat, which some boiling liquid or gaseous form of liquid produces, causes some injury, such injury is called scald.

    b-vi. Simple Burn
    When hot material or flame ceases some injury, such injury is called simple burn.

    ii. Regional Injury
    For explanation of regional injury, following points are important

    a. Meaning
    Regional injury means that injury, which can be caused on different parts of human body.


    b. Forms
    Following are different forms of regional injury:
    b-i. Face
    Injuries on face are considered grievous hurts, and they can be caused on eyes, nose and teeth.

    b-ii. Neck
    Usually injuries on neck are in incised forms. In most of cases, these injuries are homicidal or suicidal ones. However, such injuries can also be accidental ones in some cases.

    b-iii. Chest
    Chest injuries can be caused on heart, ribs, and lungs and so on. Such injuries can be in forms of closed wounds and open wounds. In most of cases, such injuries are accidental or homicidal ones. However, such injuries can also be suicidal ones in some cases.

    b-iv. Head
    Most of head injuries are accidental or homicidal once. Such injuries can be in forms of injuries to scalp, skull and brain.

    b-v. Bones
    Bone fractures are bone injuries.

    b-vi. Abdomen
    Injuries to abdomen are either closed injuries or open injuries. Blunt objects can cause closed injuries while open injuries are stab injuries.

    iii. Mechanical Injury
    For explanation of mechanical injury, following points are important

    a. Meaning
    If some injury is caused to human body through physical violence, such injury is called mechanical injury.

    b. Forms
    Some forms of mechanical injury are abrasions, stab wounds, bruises, incised wounds, lacerations, fabricated wounds, firearm wounds, and defense wounds.

    iv. Accidental Injury
    For explanation of accidental injury, following points are important.

    a. Meaning
    These are those injuries, which are caused by traffic accidents.

    b. Forms
    Injuries of scalp, lacerated wounds and chest injuries are different forms of accidental injuries.

    4. Fabricated Injury
    Following points are important for explanation of fabricated injury.

    i. Meaning
    When some person causes injury on his own body or allows another person to cause some injury on his body, such injury is called fabricated injury. It reveals that such injury is, in fact, forged or fictitious injury.

    ii. Forms
    As some person can cause fabricated injury on his body or another person, with his permission, can cause such injury, therefore fabricated injury can be self inflicted injury or can be friendly handed injury,.

    ii. Purpose
    Main purpose of fabricated injury is to prove victim’s false charge against accused.

    iii. Fabricated Injury & Chare
    Fabricated injury remains fruitless to support charge against accused especially when medical legal report reveals that such injury is either self inflicted one or friendly handed one.

    5. Difference between Ante-mortem & Post-Mortem Injuries

    Following are main differences between ante-mortem and post-mortem injuries

    i. Freezing of blood
    Blood, which comes out of ante-mortem injury, freezes around injury and surrounding of injury while blood, which comes out of post-mortem injury, does not freeze but it will be flowing.

    ii. In case of Blunt weapon
    If ante-mortem injury has been caused by some blunt weapon, blood will freeze under skin. However, blood will not freeze under skin when post-mortem injury has been caused by blunt weapon.

    iii. Color of Injury
    Color of ante-mortem injury will be pink where as color of post-mortem injury will be white.

    iv. Edges of Injury
    Edges of ante-mortem injury will be open due to reaction of skin and muscular tissues, but edges of post-mortem injury will not be open.

    v. Swelling
    In case of ante-mortem injury, there will be swelling. However, swelling will not be present very near to post-mortem injury.

    vi. Skin & Muscular Form of Injury
    Skin and muscular form of ante-mortem injury will be shrunk and turned out while skin and muscular form of post-mortem injury will not be shrunk and turned out.

    Conclusion

    To conclude, it can be stated that different punishment has been provided against causing of every injury. Therefore, assessment of kinds of injury and nature of injury is very important for final conclusion of trial especially when criminal case is against allegation of causing of some injury. Reason is that such assessment decides which punishment can be awarded against accused.
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    Item Reviewed: Injury and its Kinds under Medical jurisprudence Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Usman Ali
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